Home Corrections Ending the Cycle of Recidivism: Rehabilitating Non-Violent Drug Offenders
Ending the Cycle of Recidivism: Rehabilitating Non-Violent Drug Offenders

Ending the Cycle of Recidivism: Rehabilitating Non-Violent Drug Offenders


By Jinnie ChuaAssistant Editor of In Public Safety

Prison time is the price of most crimes in America, but it is not the only way to keep our communities safe. When it comes to non-violent drug offenders, many signs indicate that supervised rehabilitation programs are a more effective solution to reduce recidivism.

A study conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics found that drug offenders were the second most likely group to reoffend after property offenders; 76.9 percent of drug offenders released in 2005 were rearrested within five years, nearly half of those within the first year of release.

“Obviously what we’re doing isn’t working or we’d see greater reduction in recidivism rates and we wouldn’t see a lot of these people going through the same issues,” said Kelli Callahan, a criminal justice faculty member at American Military University. Callahan has spent 10 years working in corrections, including two years in a mental health and treatment unit within a correctional facility in the state of Washington.

“Our inclination in corrections is to punish and that typically comes in the form of incarceration,” she said. “When individuals are in prison, they’re not going to get the same kind of ongoing rehabilitation needed to overcome their drug dependencies.”

The Cost of Incarcerating Non-Violent Drug Offenders

Funding for internal drug rehabilitation treatment programs remains a challenge and those institutions that do provide this service face significant obstacles. Not only are these programs expensive, but they do little to prevent drug offenders from returning to the same addictions and patterns of criminal behavior when they are released.

Even without drug rehabilitation programs, it can be extremely costly to provide general healthcare to inmates with a history of substance abuse. On top of addiction and mental health issues, it is not uncommon for these inmates to have chronic diseases like hepatitis, heart disease, and diabetes.

“Offenders may come to prison with compromised immune systems and it may be difficult for them to get well when communicable illnesses are passed around the facility,” said Callahan. “The financial toll associated with prison healthcare remains a constant area of concern.”

It is also worth considering the outcome of putting non-violent drug offenders into harsh, anti-social prison environments. It often means exposing low-risk individuals with no history of violence to the influence of much more dangerous inmates, including those who have committed violent or sexual crimes.

“At best they’re sitting idle, sometimes for years,” said Callahan. “They may not choose to participate in valuable programming and, conversely, may learn new ways to engage in criminality.”

What Makes a Rehabilitative Approach Effective?

Instead, Callahan suggests that corrections institutions focus on rehabilitating non-violent drug offenders outside of prison walls where they can work, complete out-patient treatment, and be closer to their support systems. Such community corrections programs have a much higher chance of reintegrating non-violent drug offenders into a productive role in society.

“By placing them back out into the communities, they’re forced to be self-sufficient so the cost of their housing, food and healthcare isn’t falling on the taxpayers,” said Callahan.

She makes it clear however, that a rehabilitative approach does not mean a more lenient approach nor one that puts the community at risk. Instead, offenders are entered into a structured program with a longer period of supervision, as opposed to simply returning to their previous lifestyle after serving their time behind bars.

In addition to putting these offenders on probation or parole, community corrections programs should include mandatory treatment or rehabilitative sessions and a psychological counselling component.

“There are ways we can have these individuals engage with more treatment options, but still hold them accountable,” said Callahan. “There’s the incentive for them to participate if they can remain with their families and keep their jobs.”

Investing in the Long-Term Benefits of Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation is about putting an end to the cycle of recidivism that will otherwise continue to place the burden back on the corrections system and on American taxpayers. Anti-drug efforts currently cost the U.S. more than $50 billion a year, according to the Drug Policy Alliance.

Although implementing a community corrections program might be expensive at the onset, it will ultimately be more cost-effective than incarceration, explained Callahan, especially when taking into account the effect rehabilitation will have on recidivism.

“The trick is getting the initial funding for these programs to get them going,” she said. “We need to recognize that there’s an issue and commit to devoting time, effort, and money into evidence-based practices.”

The criminal justice system needs to implement a new strategy to help non-violent drug offenders overcome their substance abuse issues because the current system of incarcerating them – with little to no rehabilitation – just isn’t sustainable.

“Unfortunately there’s a pervasive stereotype that drug offenders are beyond reproach, that they’re untreatable,” said Callahan. “But it’s not true. I think in a lot of ways it’s our current system that sets them up for failure.”


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  1. Recidivism is occurring partly because of the lack of effective programs and policies to assist ex-convicts readjust to society once released. Many offenders are released with little sense of direction, are expected become productive members of society, and all the while they are carrying the stigma of their criminal past. Criminal history can stifle growth opportunities in areas of education, obtaining employment, and finding adequate housing. A potential solution would be for prisons to include better education, providing job training, and society could contribute by offering higher paying job opportunities for people with criminal records. Ex-offenders usually have some sort of past that prevented them from obtaining a proper education. If we want these individuals to thrive in an ever changing world, they need to be properly educated before being released Many inmates struggle to read and become unfamiliar with the ever growing changes in technology. Being that they need to gain employment, someone needs to be responsible in providing their education. Along with that many offenders lack job experience. Most employers want their employees to have experience that shows they know what they are doing and are capable of being committed to the job. Proper training should include interview skills, and vocational or technical training geared towards a specific trade or skill. Because many offenders are held back by their background, they often turn to prior criminal activities in order to survive. There are some offenders who stick it out in mediocre jobs, but they struggle to pay for housing and food, often leaning on the government or criminal activity. Though there are some jobs that offer decent pay, if more opportunities were made available, the recidivism rates would be distinctively lower. By combining all of these avenues; education, job training and career opportunites, we can definitely fight the fight to end recidivism. 


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